Upon Father Edgeworth’s advice, he avoided a farewell scene with his family. Center for On November 20, opinion turned sharply against Louis following the discovery of a secret cache of 726 documents of his personal communications. 1927: Gene Tunney successfully defended his heavyweight boxing title against Jack Dempsey in the "long count" fight in Chicago. In the course of 1793, the Holy Roman Empire, the kings of Portugal and Naples, and the Grand-Duke of Tuscany declared war against France. France declared war against Britain and the Netherlands on February 1, 1793, and soon afterwards against Spain. The National Assembly began the process of drafting a constitution. It was the first French assembly elected by universal male suffrage, without distinctions of class. On January 21, 1793, the former Louis XVI, now simply named Citoyen Louis Capet (Citizen Louis Capet), was executed by guillotine. May 5, 1789. Alternative Title: Georges-Jacques Danton Georges Danton, in full Georges-Jacques Danton, (born October 26, 1759, Arcis-sur-Aube, France—died April 5, 1794, Paris), French Revolutionary leader and orator, often credited as the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic (September 21, 1792). After many battles on many lands, the French troops are able to draft peace treaties with Austria, Holland, Prussia, and Spain. REPUBLICANISM radical, non-monarchical alternative of American colonies in 1776 Revolution 1792-95 First French Republic influenced by Rousseau, by American Republic of 1776 September 2-6th: The September Massacres in Paris result in around 1,200 deaths. In September 1791, the National Assembly released its much-anticipated Constitution of 1791, which created a constitutional monarchy, or limited monarchy, for France. The time between 1792 and 1794 was dominated by the radical ideology until the execution of Robespierre in July 1794. 3.For the purpose of administration and justice, it is divided into departments, districts, and municipalities. July 9, 1789. The French Revolution (French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy.Its replacement in September 1792 by the First French Republic led to the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, and an extended period of political turmoil. As Napoleon's popularity and ambition soar, he sets out to destroy British troops by invading Egypt in May of 1798. She was guillotined on October 16, 1793. A commission was established to examine evidence against him while the Convention’s Legislation Committee considered legal aspects of any future trial. National Convention: A single-chamber assembly in France from September 20, 1792, to October 26, 1795, during the French Revolution. 1862: President Abraham Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves in rebel states free as of Jan. 1, 1863. Chaos persisted until the National Convention, elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution, met on September 20, 1792, and became the new de facto government of France. The First Coalition against France is formed by Great Britain, Holland, Spain, Austria, and Prussia. Louis was to be put to death. Minister of the Armies) is the official in charge of the Ministry of the Armed Forces in the Government of the French Republic, charged with running the French Armed Forces.. In October of 1795, France establishes the new Directory consisting of five men who are chosen by the new legislature, the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients. The First Republic lastit till the declaration o the First French Empire in 1804 unner Napoleon I. The Minister of the Armed Forces (French: Ministre des Armées, lit. 6. Not a single deputy voted “no,” although 26 attached some condition to their votes. Most of the pieces of correspondence in the cabinet involved ministers of Louis XVI, but others involved most of the big players of the Revolution. The Convention’s secretary read the charges: “the French people” accused Louis of committing “a multitude of crimes in order to establish [his] tyranny by destroying its liberty.” Louis XVI heard 33 charges. https://www.thoughtco.com/french-revolution-timeline-1789-91-1221888 His royal seal was to go to the Dauphin and his wedding ring to the Queen. The Consulate (1799-1804) is thus established and Napoleon is later appointed the first consul for life in 1802. Digital Scholarship These documents, despite the likely gaps and pre-selection showed the duplicity of advisers and ministers—at least those that Louis XVI trusted—who had set up parallel policies. Fascination with constitutions and constitutional government was a creature of the Enlightenment. The Declaration offered sweeping generalizations about rights, liberty, and sovereignty. On September 20, the Convention became the new de facto government of France, and the next day it abolished the monarchy and declared a republic. A commission was established to examine evidence against the King while the Convention’s Legislation Committee considered legal aspects of any future trial. June 20, 1789. The Constitution of 1791 National Assembly September 3, 1791 HistoryWiz Primary Source [Preamble] The National Assembly, wishing to establish the French Constitution upon the principles it has just recognized and declared, abolishes irrevocably the institutions which were injurious to liberty and equality of … Though 100 men are killed, Napoleon succeeds in controlling the mob, and is soon given command of the French army. Thus, the First Coalition was formed. The Constitution also calls for a separation of powers and limited suffrage. 34 voted for death with attached conditions (23 of whom invoked the Mailhe amendment), 2 voted for life imprisonment in irons, 319 voted for imprisonment until the end of the war (to be followed by banishment). Brown University Library Later, during the Napoleonic date system, years are counted since the establishment of the first French Republic on 22 September 1792. The following day, the Convention’s president Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac presented it with the indictment and decreed the interrogation of Louis XVI. The Constitution of 1791 is also suspended at this time. The National Convention is made up of the Girondins, who support the bourgeoisie, the Montagnards, who favor a central regime, and the Marais who are positioned in between the two. Marie Antoinette was tried separately, after Louis’s death. Following the aftermaths of the Revolution of 1789 and the abolishment of the monarchy, the First Republic of France is established on September 22 of 1792. 26 deputies were absent from the vote, most on official business. 23 deputies abstained for various reasons, several because they felt they had been elected to make laws rather than to judge. 2.The French people is, for the purpose of exercising its sovereignty, divided into primary assemblies according to cantons. Jacques Necker appointed Minister of France. That day became 1 Vendemiaire of the year I of the Republic. Across Europe, conservatives were horrified and monarchies called for war against revolutionary France. Start studying French Revolution Dates: 1789-1794. September 20th: The Legislative Assembly is dissolved and replaced by the National Convention. September 27, 1791 Emancipation of the Jews, who are fully recognized French citizens as of today. Before the On January 21, 1793, Louis XVI awoke at 5 a.m. and heard his last Mass. The Convention’s unanimous declaration of a French Republic on September 21, 1792, left open the fate of the King. September 25, 1791 The deputies of the National Constituent Assembly adopt the first version of the Penal Code (French: Code Pénal), a set of rules governing violations and criminal responsibility. A new revolutionary calendar is adopted by the National Convention which sets 1792 as the first year (first year of the republic) and has 14 months instead of 12 based on non-Christian times of the year. Napoleon's new government is authoritarian with a central administration supported by local ruling powers. In the history o Fraunce, the First Republic, offeecially the French Republic (French: République française), wis foondit on 22 September 1792, bi the newly established Naitional Convention. The minister in charge of the Armed Forces has evolved within the epoque and regimes. 1791-92 Constitutional Monarchy: Constitution drafted by National Assembly (3rd Estate plus supporters from 1st & 2cd) 1793 execution of Louis XIII as Citizen Capet III. The Aftermath of August 10 Although he had only two weeks to prepare his defense arguments, on December 26 Desèzepleaded the king’s case for three hours, arguing eloquently yet discreetly that the revolution spare his life. The execution of Louis XVI united all European governments, including Spain, Naples, and the Netherlands, against the Revolution. The former Louis XVI, now simply named Citoyen Louis Capet (Citizen Louis Capet), was executed by guillotine. The trial began on December 3. By 1796, French wars continue to infest Europe, and Britain refuses to surrender to French troops. Execution of Louis XVI, German copperplate engraving, 1793, by Georg Heinrich Sieveking. Estates-General meets for the first time in 100 years. Despite the domestic chaos plaguing France, the government insists on a military draft and preparation for international war. Most Montagnards (radical republicans) favored judgement and execution, while the Girondins (moderate republicans) were divided concerning Louis’s fate. The First Republic (1792-1804) Following the aftermaths of the Revolution of 1789 and the abolishment of the monarchy, the First Republic of France is established on September 22 of 1792. In the same year, France invades Switzerland. Paris voted overwhelmingly for death, 21 to 3. The years of 1793-1794 mark the Reign of Terror, a period of mass executions directed by the Montagnards' Committee of Public Safety and the Revolutionary Tribunal in an attempt to rid France of counterrevolutionaries. For punishment, 361 voted for death without conditions, just carrying the vote by a marginal majority. Tennis Court Oath. After some successful battles, the French fleet is destroyed by British troops in August. The National Convention and the French Republic. 5. It was even suggested that Mailhe had been paid, perhaps by Spanish gold. French Revolution Timeline. Providence, RI 02912 Louis XVI's execution catalyses extreme resistance throughout much of Europe. French Studies and The civic oath is: I swear to be faithful to the nation, to the law, and to the King, and to maintain with all my power the Constitution of the kingdom, decreed by the National Constituent Assembly in the years 1789, 1790, and 1791. cds_info@brown.edu. Napoleon launches his Italian Campaign, surprises Austrian troops and attacks successfully, proving to be a strong and influential leader. ARMIES OF THE FIRST FRENCH REPUBLIC AND THE RISE OF THE MARSHALS OF NAPOLEON I: … September 22nd, 1792. Domestically, France continues to suffer poor economic conditions, and the Directory is plagued by corruption. In late September, therefore, the first election took place under the rules of the Constitution of 1791. King Louis XVI and the royal family took shelter with the Legislative Assembly, which was suspended. The army was commanded by NCOs that were made generals after the revolution, and its soldiers were conscripts from across France. On July 27, 1794, Robespierre, a major leader of the Reign of Terror, is overthrown and executed, but the revered reputation of the French Revolution is drastically diminished throughout Europe. Box A According to the revised Constitution, the Directory holds all executive power, and one of the five men is to be replaced each year. September 30th, 1791. Thousands of people are executed, and over 200,000 arrests are made during the two years of massive uprising. It succeeded the Legislative Assembly and founded the First Republic after the insurrection of August 10, 1792. After being kept under what was essentially "house arrest," King Louis XVI and his family made an escape attempt from the Tuileries Palace to Varennes in 1791. September - The September Massacres occur between September 2 - 7. A project of the The legislature of France from October 1, 1791, to September 20, 1792, during the years of the French Revolution. Given overwhelming evidence of Louis’s collusion with the invaders during the ongoing war with Austria and Prussia, the verdict was a foregone conclusion. War of the First Coalition. On 3 September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced king Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. The Insurrection of August 10, 1792, was one of the defining events in the history of the French Revolution. The vast majority killed are imprisoned royalists and clergymen. September 22 - The First French Republic is founded. September 20 - The National Convention is established. STUDY. For the king’s sentence, deputy Jean-Baptiste Mailhe proposed “Death, but (…) I think it would be worthy of the Convention to consider whether it would be useful to policy to delay the execution.” This “Mailhe amendment,” supported by 26 deputies, was regarded by some of Mailhe’s contemporaries as a conspiracy to save the king’s life. That day became 1 Vendemiaire of the year 1 of the Republic. August 25, 1788. 1949 The trial began on December 3. It provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and the National Convention. Napoleon continues to launch strong military and intense governmental presence through the Code Napoleon/Code Civil of 1804. The Insurrection of August 10, 1792, led to the creation of the National Convention, elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution. Napoleon signs the Concordat with the Pope in 1801, formalizing the Church's presence in France by allowing the State to appoint bishops. The King attempted to flee France and raise an army to retake the country from the revolutionaries. Years are counted since the establishment of the first French Republic on 22 September 1792. March 1792. Ultimately, 693 deputies voted “yes” in favor of a guilty verdict. February 1st, 1793. January, 1789 "What is the Third Estate" by Abbe Sieyes is published. This document, unwillingly signed by King Louis XVI, created a constitutional monarchy in France. The execution of Louis XVI united all European governments, including Spain, Naples, and the Netherlands, against the Revolution. Not a single deputy voted “no,” although 26 attached some condition to their votes. In response, Russia, Austria, Britain, Turkey, Portugal and Naples form the Second Coalition against France. Tuileries break-in ... First French Republic. After the official abolition of the French monarchy on 21 September 1792, the National Convention instituted the new French Revolutionary Calendar. 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